Instructions for authors

Recommended format

The A4-size paper is most preferred. The entire manuscript must be 1.5 spaced with all the margins 2.54 cm. Manuscript should be typed with 12 cpi letters, the font Times New Roman. Number all pages in the lower right corner. The approximate position of the tables and figures should be indicated in the left margin. Use single space between any words. Text should be pure, no hyphens, capitals, bold.


Nomenclature, units and abbreviations

All biological and chemical names, and technical terms should conform to the most recent international nomenclature. Latin botanical and zoological names of Genera and species (e.g. Hylobius abietis L.), words which are not originally English (e.g. in vitro), and symbols expressing numerical values in the text and equations (e.g. S.D., S.E., p, n, t-test, r) should be typed in italics. The SI system, which includes the metric units should be used throughout. All abbreviations, nomenclature and symbols must be the same in the text and figures.

The structure of manuscript ( see example)

The standard order in sections: Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgements, References.


(a) Title of the paper

The title should be informative and short with maximum length of 100 characters or 15 words. Never in capitals or boldface, not centered, font 14 cpi.


(b) Author(s)

Provide full names (first and family name) of all authors and indicate the corresponding autor. Font 13 cpi.


(c) Abstract

The Abstract should provide a brief summary (not more than 250 words) of the study including the purpose, methods, results, and major conclusions. Font 10 cpi, spacing 1.0.


(d) Key words

One line, separated by a comma, 10 cpi.


(e) Authors' addresses / Author's address

The name and address of institutions of research origin, e-mail of the first author, 10 cpi.


(f) Text

Tables and figures (graphs, drawing, photos) – should be numbered with Arabic numerals in the order or appearance in the text (e.g. Table 1; Figure 1; Figures 3–4), font 11 cpi. The table should be fit on a page – vertically or horizontally. Table and figure size (with headings and legends) must not exceed 13.5 x 20 cm (because they must fit on B5 page). Each table and figure should be presented on a separate sheet. The preferred position of tables and figures should be indicated in the margin of the text. Footnotes should not be used. The number of the table and figure should be written above the table or figure. A horizontal line should be drawn above and below the column headings and at the bottom of the table. No vertical lines in the table. Use TAB and not space bar between columns.


(g) References

References in the text. Citations in the text should be by author and year: (Coock, 1994; Smith & Trace, 1999). When a publication with more than two authors is cited, only the first is named in the text (Jones et al., 1987). The results of recent work by Smith et al. (1992).... If there is more than one work by the same author or team of authors in the same year, a, b, c, etc. is added to the year both in the text (Smith & Trace, 1999a; Smith & Trace, 1999b) and in the list of references.

Reference list. The reference list should be in alphabetical order according to the first author`s name.  All authors and full title of the article should be cited. Journal titles should be given in full. Publications by two authors with the same first author should be listed alphabetically according to the second author`s name. Publications by three or more authors with the same first author should be listed chronologically.


References (an example)

Journal article:

                Sibul, I., Kuusik, A., Voolma, K. 2004. Monitoring of gas exchange cycles and ventilatory movements in the pine weevil Hylobius abietis: respiratory failures evoked by a botanical insecticide. – Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 110, 173–179.


                Baker, N.R., Long, S.P. 1986. Photosynthesis in Contrasting Environments. Amsterdam, Elsevier. 423 pp.

Book chapter:

                Polle, A., Otter, T., Sandermann, H. Jr. 1997. Biochemistry and physiology of lignin synthesis. – Rennenberg, H., Eschrich, W., Ziegler, H. (eds.). Trees – Contributions to Modern Tree Physiology.  Leiden, Backhuys Publishers, 455–475.

Conference proceedings:

                Tomiczek, C. 1994. Nutrient deficiency of spruce needles caused by root and butt rots – a factor in forest decline. – Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, Sweden/Finland, Aug. 1993. Uppsala, 268–275.

Electronic material:

                Beckleheimer, J. 1994. How do you cite URLs in a bibliography? [WWW document]. – URL        [Accessed 17 March 1995].

Article in press:

                May be included in the references list, with the name of the journal and year followed by ‘(In press)’. The article must be accepted by the journal.

Kuuluvainen, T., Mäki, J., Karjalainen, L., Lehtonen, H. 2001. Tree age distributions in old-growth   forest sites in Vienansalo wilderness, eastern Fennoscandia. – Silva Fennica. (In press).

References in other languages (Estonian, Russian etc.) must be translated (not transliterated) into English, and kept in the original language as well (indicate original language in brackets).

Haapanen, A., Siitonen, P. 1978. Forest fires in Ulvisalo strict nature reserve. (Kulojen esiintyminen Ulvinsalon luonnonpuistossa). – Silva Fennica, 12, 187–200. (In Finnish with English summary).

Material in preparation, unpublished or personal communication:

                Not to be included in the reference list and only to be referred to in the text using all autors’ initial(s) and name(s) followed by ‘in prep.’, ‘unpubl.’ or ‘pers. comm.’.


(h) Summary is only obligatory for papers published in Estonian. The papers in English may include also a summary in Estonian. The length should not exceed one page, font 12 cpi.